1) пути движения товаров и услуг через промежуточных агентов или непосредственно к потребителю; 2) совокупность фирм и лиц, выполняющих функции продвижения товаров и услуг от производителя к потребителю. В зависимости от числа посредников между производителем и потребителем различают каналы нулевого уровня, одноуровневые, двухуровневые, трехуровневые каналы.
Современный экономический словарь
Маркетинг в сфере производства и обращения Монография отражает специфику маркетинга в отраслях промышленности и сферы обращения. Рассмотрены особенности маркетинга на промышленных предприятиях (товарная политика, каналы распределения, ценообразование и коммуникационная политика, маркетинговая стратегия и планирование маркетинга), а также особенности маркетинговых исследований в сфере обращения - оптовой и розничной торговле. Особое внимание уделяется инфраструктуре товарного рынка, маркетингу в инвестиционной сфере торгово-посреднических организаций. Для работников отделов маркетинга и специалистов экономических служб предприятий сферы производства и обращения, студентов и преподавателей экономических вузов.
Partnerships and LLCs: Tax Practice and Analysis Written for professional advisors, Partnerships and LLCs is an authoritative reference on all aspects of partnership and LLC taxation. The book consists of six main sections: -- Considerations preliminary to selecting the partnership form of ownership. -- Funding the partnership -- Taxation of operations -- Parter's share of partnership debt -- Disposition of a partnership interest -- Distributions Partnerships and LLCs contains hundreds of examples and practical observationsto assist the reader in understanding and applying the concepts. Coverage is exhaustive and authoritative. This book can be used as an educational tool, a research volume, and as a answer book to address client situations. This is a must-have volume for tax practitioners with partnership clients.
1% Tax Solution The 1% Solution is true tax reform in the 21st century. The book will revolutionize the way we pay taxes. The beauty of the 1% Tax Solution is that it virtually eliminates all Federal taxes on middle class Americans. It gives the middle class temendous economic savings. I have come to believe this is the book's crowning achievement. Imagine the economic system of America contained inside a huge fifty story building. The first floor contains the wages of working Americans, consumer spending, mortgage payments, and so forth. The remaining forty-nine floors consist of all non-consumer spending such as business to business transactions. Money can, and does, flow in any direction on the same floor or between floors. Virtually all the federal taxes are collected on the first floor only. Ninety eight percent of the building has little or no tax burden. The "1% tax solution" transfers one-half the federal budget from the first floor to the other forty-nine floors. Taxing transactions a...
The Tobin Tax: Coping With Financial Volatility In his 1972 Janeway Lectures at Princeton, James Tobin, the 1981 Nobel Prize winner for economics, submitted a proposal for a levy on international currency transactions. The idea was not greeted with enthusiasm, as the 1970s were a period of optimism and confidence in floating exchange rages. Yet, whenever currency crises erupted during the past decades, the proposal for a levy on international currency transactions would once again arise. In the 1990s, two additional facts have sharpened interest in the Tobin tax proposal. First is the growing volume of foreign exchange trading. Second, interest is coming not only from policymakers and experts concerned with the smooth functioning of financial markets. It is shared by those concerned with public financing of development--the fiscal crisis of the state as well as the growing need for international cooperation on problems such as the environment, poverty, peace and security. This work makes a systematic analysis of the proposal...
The Employee's Guide to Stock Options Do you understand what stock is and how stock options work? Or how stock value is created? Do you understand the tax, exercise, and financial planning issues for stock options? If you're like most people, at least some of these issues are perplexing for you. Until now, though, there has not been a book that puts this all together for the everyday employee. The Employee's Guide to Stock Options puts it all in one place in an easy-to-understand format.
The Don't Sweat Guide to Taxes : Avoiding Stress Over April 15th (Don't Sweat Guides) Foreword by Richard Carlson Ph.D. Avoiding Stress Over April 15th. Filing your taxes is an event almost everyone "sweats." With tips on how to stay calm about the deadline, how not to obsess over lost receipts, and how to keep focused, this is the perfect gift for anyone who dreads tax time.
The Birth of Plenty : How the Prosperity of the Modern World was Created FROM THE BESTSELLING AUTHOR OF THE INTELLIGENT ASSET ALLOCATOR Praise for The Birth of Plenty: "Bill Bernstein has given us a compact and immensely readable economic, political, military, and institutional history of our civilization that is a tour de force. Put everything else down. Take a deep breath. Open The Birth of Plenty. And prepare to be amazed. --John C. Bogle, Founder and Former CEO, The Vanguard Group "The Birth of Plenty is a brilliantly written, whirlwind account of how the modern world was formed. It is a hugely enjoyable read, full of vigor and liveliness, and a book every American should possess--at least those who treasure our abundant life and care about our future." --William Schultheis, Author, The Coffeehouse Investor "Put simply, this is my favorite economic history book. It gathers what is interesting about economic history to draw important lessons." --Ed Tower, Professor of Economics,...
Cost-Benefit Analysis This second edition covers all the main problems that arise in a typical cost-benefit exercise. It is entirely up to date, reflecting the most recent research in the area. Part One covers the main theoretical issues affecting cost-benefit analysis. Part Two considers the problem of ascribing a monetary value to things. The third part covers six separate case studies drawn from real-life examples. The book begins with an extended elementary introduction written by the editors.