1) пути движения товаров и услуг через промежуточных агентов или непосредственно к потребителю; 2) совокупность фирм и лиц, выполняющих функции продвижения товаров и услуг от производителя к потребителю. В зависимости от числа посредников между производителем и потребителем различают каналы нулевого уровня, одноуровневые, двухуровневые, трехуровневые каналы.
Современный экономический словарь
Маркетинг в сфере производства и обращения Монография отражает специфику маркетинга в отраслях промышленности и сферы обращения. Рассмотрены особенности маркетинга на промышленных предприятиях (товарная политика, каналы распределения, ценообразование и коммуникационная политика, маркетинговая стратегия и планирование маркетинга), а также особенности маркетинговых исследований в сфере обращения - оптовой и розничной торговле. Особое внимание уделяется инфраструктуре товарного рынка, маркетингу в инвестиционной сфере торгово-посреднических организаций. Для работников отделов маркетинга и специалистов экономических служб предприятий сферы производства и обращения, студентов и преподавателей экономических вузов.
Cost-Benefit Analysis This second edition covers all the main problems that arise in a typical cost-benefit exercise. It is entirely up to date, reflecting the most recent research in the area. Part One covers the main theoretical issues affecting cost-benefit analysis. Part Two considers the problem of ascribing a monetary value to things. The third part covers six separate case studies drawn from real-life examples. The book begins with an extended elementary introduction written by the editors.
The New Economy: What It Is, How It Happened, and Why It Is Likely to Last How doing business is undergoing a major historic transformation--and why we’ve only begun our productivity upswing America’s economic troubles have had a dramatic impact on how investors view markets and the businesses that drive them. And for now they have overshadowed a profound and ongoing revolution--still taking place after twenty-five years--in the way the economy operates. Just as in past economic revolutions, today’s "new economy" emerged from the combinationof powerful new technologies--in this case, information and communications technologies--and the methods companies adopted in order to use those technologies effectively. The bubble in technology stocks, its collapse, and the recession that followed are part of a larger pattern of dramatic transformation of markets and businesses. And unlike the bureaucratic companies of the past, today’s leading firms are lean, flexible, entrepreneurial, and more productive—and the new ways in...
The Power of Gold: The History of an Obsession Mr. Bernstein has turned this story - not an obvious golden opportunity for even a writer of Mr. Bernstein's skill - into a real page-turner. The Wall Street Journal Bernstein's volume is a tour de force with a satisfying conclusion: The characters in this drama prove themselves 'fools for gold, chasing an illusion.' Business Week This book is an eloquent, brilliantly written historical review of how gold has influenced the evolution of monetary systems and trade, from early civilizations to the present day. Bernstein succeeds in presenting an enormous amount of research in a format as easy to read and as captivating as the best murder mystery. Risk magazine
Financing the American Dream: A Cultural History of Consumer Credit Once there was a golden age of American thrift, when citizens lived sensibly within their means and worked hard to stay out of debt. The growing availability of credit in this century, however, has brought those days to an end--undermining traditional moral virtues such as prudence, diligence, and the delay of gratification while encouraging reckless consumerism. Or so we commonly believe. In this engaging and thought-provoking book, Lendol Calder shows that this conception of the past is in fact a myth. Calder presents the first book-length social and cultural history of the rise of consumer credit in America. He focuses on the years between 1890 and 1940, when the legal, institutional, and moral bases of today's consumer credit were established, and in an epilogue takes the story up to the present. He draws on a wide variety of sources--including personal diaries and letters, government and business records, newspapers, advertisements, movies, and the words of such figures as...
The Politics of the World-Economy the States the Movements and the Civilizations (Studies in Modern Capitalism =) In these essays, written (with one exception) between 1978 and 1982, Immanuel Wallerstein elaborates on the political and theoretical implications of the world-systems perspective outlined in his celebrated books The Modern World-System and The Capitalist World-Economy. Whereas those books centred on the historical development of the modern world-system, the essays in this volume explore the nature of world politics in the light of Wallerstein's analysis of the world-system and capitalist world-economy. Throughout, the essays offer new perspectives on the central issues of political debate today: the roles of the USA and the USSR in the world-system, the relations of the Third World states to the capitalist 'core', and the potential for socialist or revolutionary change. Different sections deal with the three major political institutions of the modern world-system: the states, the antisystemic movements, and the civilizations. The states are a classic rubric of political analysis. For...
Bargaining and Market Behavior: Essays in Experimental Economics This second collection of papers by Vernon L. Smith, a creator of the field of experimental economics, includes many of his primary authored and coauthored contributions on bargaining and market behavior between 1990 and 1998. The essays explore the use of laboratory experiments to test propositions derived from economics and game theory. They also investigate the relationship between experimental economics and psychology, particularly the field of evolutionary psychology, using the latter to broaden theperspective in which experimental results are interpreted. Specific themes investigated include rational choice, the notion of fairness, game theory and extensive form experimental interactions, institutions and market behavior, and the study of laboratory stock markets.
Money and Power: The History of Business Where there?s greed and ambition you?ll find . . . Money & Power From the pivotal spice trade routes to the streets where merchants sold their wares . . .from the royal court of Spain where a faulty economic plan led to ruin to early American industrial capitals and assembly lines . . . from the fever pitch of Wall Street to the groundbreaking moments in television and motion picture history. CNBC?s acclaimed documentary Money and Power deftly traces the movement of trade, banking, industry, and commerce from East to West, from ancient times to modern. Now this companion book provides an expansive global view of the moguls and dynasties that have defined business in the last millennium. Featuring a Foreword by the documentary?s award-winning creator, David Grubin, Money and Power offers important lessons that are of timeless value?and inspiration for the next generation of groundbreakers and visionaries of business. "You may think a...
Decision Making: Descriptive, Normative, and Prescriptive Interactions The analysis of decision making under uncertainty has again become a major focus of interest. This volume presents contributions from leading specialists in different fields and provides a summary and synthesis of work in this area. It is based on a conference held at the Harvard Business School. The book brings together the different approaches to decision making - normative, descriptive, and prescriptive - which largely correspond to different disciplinary interests. Mathematicians have concentrated onrational procedures for decision making - how people should make decisions. Psychologists have examined how poeple do make decisions, and how far their behaviour is compatible with any rational model. Operations researchers study the application of decision models to actual problems. Throughout, the aim is to present the current state of research and its application and also to show how the different disciplinary approaches can inform one another and thus lay the foundations for the...
The Rise of Financial Capitalism: International Capital Markets in the Age of Reason (Studies in Monetary and Financial History) This work establishes the existence of a sophisticated and smoothly functioning system of financial markets in the mercantile states of northwestern Europe throughout the 1700s. Based on computer analysis of thousands of price quotes from the financial press of the eighteenth century, the results should force both historians and economists to reevaluate their understanding of the evolution of financial markets and their importance for the economic developments of that era.