1) пути движения товаров и услуг через промежуточных агентов или непосредственно к потребителю; 2) совокупность фирм и лиц, выполняющих функции продвижения товаров и услуг от производителя к потребителю. В зависимости от числа посредников между производителем и потребителем различают каналы нулевого уровня, одноуровневые, двухуровневые, трехуровневые каналы.
Современный экономический словарь
Маркетинг в сфере производства и обращения Монография отражает специфику маркетинга в отраслях промышленности и сферы обращения. Рассмотрены особенности маркетинга на промышленных предприятиях (товарная политика, каналы распределения, ценообразование и коммуникационная политика, маркетинговая стратегия и планирование маркетинга), а также особенности маркетинговых исследований в сфере обращения - оптовой и розничной торговле. Особое внимание уделяется инфраструктуре товарного рынка, маркетингу в инвестиционной сфере торгово-посреднических организаций. Для работников отделов маркетинга и специалистов экономических служб предприятий сферы производства и обращения, студентов и преподавателей экономических вузов.
The Whitney Women and the Museum They Made At a time when American millionaires and institutions invested only in European art, Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney took the risk of collecting and showing the paintings of American contemporary artists. In 1931, the institution called The Whitney Museum ofAmerican Art was officially born. After Gertrude's death in 1943, her daughter Flora took the helm, which she in turn passed on to her daughter, Flora Biddle, who here chronicles the life and times of three generations of Whitney women. Today, the museum is thriving as one of the most prestigious homes for American art.
My Experiences in War and Business To describe Earl Hawkins as a self-made millionaire is about as incomplete a formulation as describing a Stradivarius as a wooden box with strings. His autobiography is an American story. It is about a poor, half-blind, young boy from the back woods of West Virginia, overcoming all adversity through simple, quiet, and honest determination and making himself wealthy, to be sure, but above all, a man. It is about his experiences in a war that shaped the world in which we now live: how he joined a most unlikely outfit of the National Guard; how he fooled the medical examiner to get into the Army: how he fought for several years in the Pacific--winning the Silver Star, Bronze Star and Purple Heart. It is about a man building his own American dream, piece by piece, with honesty and integrity. It is about the habits and virtues of successful people--described in an intelligent, witty and engaging way. Foreward by Dan Quayle
Legacy : A Biography of Moses and Walter Annenberg Few biographers convey their subjects' business abilities and personalities with equal acuity, but Washington-based journalist Christopher Ogden has done just that in this accomplished portrait of Moses Annenberg (1877-1942) and his son, Walter. Depicting Prussian-born Moe's rise in American publishing, Ogden captures the innovative circulation gimmicks and bare-knuckled competitive tactics that fueled the success of newspapers like the The Inquirer in Philadelphia and the Daily Racing Form (the Annenbergs' cash cow). He also unsparingly but sympathetically depicts Moe's terrible temper and willed blindness to the shadiness of some of his business practices and associates, which led to a two-year jail stint for tax evasion before he came home to die. Spoiled only son Walter, born in 1908, didn't really grow up until his father's conviction shocked him into finally focusing on the family assets, which he further enhanced by creating such pioneering niche publications as ...
E-Business & E-Commerce Infrastructure: Technologies Supporting the E-Business Initiative Chaudhury's E-Business and E-Commerce Infrastructure: Technologies Supporting the E-Business Initiative serves as a comprehensive primer to both traditional and emerging E-Commerce technologies. Using the Chaudhury text, students with no prior technical knowledge will be able to grasp complex topics such as networking, Internet security, Web languages, and other important subjects in a way that illustrates their use through case studies and practice through completing Web projects.
The Critical Path: Inventing an Automobile and Reinventing a Corporation The story of how Chrysler's minivan team created an automobile that captured the 1995 Motor Trend Car of the Year and other major awards - and reinvented a perilously entrenched corporation in the process - is as dramatic and inspiring a story as any in business today. Brock Yates, one of the most respected writers in the auto world, was given unprecedented access to Chrysler - every planning session, presentation, budget review, test drive, assembly line start-up, and marketing launch. The result is a book that unveils the mysteries of modern car-making, revealing how cars are shaped through countless interlinked decisions ranging from size and power to door configurations, color selections, and innumerable other interconnected details. It also capturesthe complex process by which the thousands of separate pieces that make up a car are designed, tested, manufactured, and marshaled into place at the exact moment they are needed. For any reader who cares about cars, this is the most...
Industrial Organization: Theory and Applications This upper-level undergraduate text provides an introduction to industrial organization theory along with applications and nontechnical analyses of the legal system and antitrust laws. Using the modern approach but without emphasizing the mathematical generality inherent in many of the arguments, it bridges the gap between existing nontheoretical texts written for undergraduates and highly technical texts written for graduate students. The book can also be used in masters' programs, and advanced graduatestudents will find it a convenient guide to modern industrial organization. The treatment is rigorous and comprehensive. A wide range of models of all widely used market structures, strategic marketing devices, compatibility and standards, advertising, R&D, as well as more traditional topics are considered in versions much simplified from the originals but that retain the basic intuition. Shy first defines the issues that industrial organization addresses and...
Shipyard in Maine: Percy & Small and the Great Schooners Towards the end of the nineteenth century, a new firm was established in Bath, Maine, at a time when established yards in the City of Ships were turning to steel construction. Percy & Small would set unrivaled records for wooden shipbuilding and ship management, launching 22 giant five- and six-masted schooners (along with 16 four-masters) in two decades. Not just builders, Percy & Small also demonstrated an unusual knack for making money as managing owners of a large fleet of schooners, and the stories of their ships are told in these pages in wonderful detail, from the wooing of potential shareholders and the elaborate launching festivities (with one schooner stuck on the ways) to deeply laden coal schooners struggling to stay off the lee shore, daring captains navigating treacherous shoals, and the perils of collisions, dismastings, fires, and enemy submarines. At sea in a storm, a giant six-master heavy with coal needed great strength to survive. Percy & Small developed...
Diversification, Refocusing, and Economic Performance During the 1980s a dramatic change in the evolution of the modern corporation took place. The phenomenon, which has been labelled "refocusing," "de-diversifying," "de-conglomerating," or simply "getting back to basics," has changed the terrain of American business. Diversification, Refocusing, and Economic Performance empirically examines the causes and consequences of this phenomenon from a corporate strategy perspective, uncovering the full scope and effects of corporate refocusing, its strategic logic, and the resultant managerial implications. Two key findings are that every firm has its own limit for diversification, beyond which profits will decline, and that there are certain similarities among those companies who choose to refocus. Starting right after the Second World War, many companies diversified widely, primarily in areas unrelated to their core businesses. In the 1980s, however, as corporate acquisitions and hostile takeovers ran rampant, this trend...