Согласно марксистской экономической доктрине возможность товара быть обмененным на другой товар в определенной пропорции, находящая свое выражение в денежной стоимости, в цене товара. Отличается от потребительной стоимости, характеризующей товар как предмет потребления.
Современный экономический словарь
Неравновесная экономика В монографии последовательно излагаются предпосылки, цели и истоки создания теории неравновесной экономики, описываются методические основы построения неравновесной модели экономики, представляющие собой подробное изложение формирования основных макроэкономических показателей экономики. Показаны методические схемы расчета индивидуальных и средних себестоимостей, цен производства, рыночных цен по отдельным товаропроизводителям с их ранжированием и, далее, стоимости, меновой стоимости, ценности совокупного товара с их теоретическим обоснованием. Сделан фундаментальный прорыв в обосновании источника прибыли в экономике - интеллекта общества - на основе глубокого анализа сущности преобразования энергии и вещества в общественном производстве и воспроизводстве. Серьезное место отведено методологическим аспектам разработанной теории на основе критики методологии анализа экономики в рамках ныне существующих направлений и школ экономической теории, раскрывается теоретическая и...
Life on the English Manor (Studies in Mediaeval Life & Thought) This book gives a picture of the daily and yearly round of the English peasant in the Middle Ages. H. S. Bennett explains the feudal system which linked the poor man to the soil and to the service of his lord and the church in a pattern of customary duesand rights, payments, labours and small privileges. The author gives lively details of the pattern of medieval country life: the influence of the seasons and the state of contemporary knowledge on the work of the fields; the place of religion in everydaylife; the workings of feudal justice; popular attitudes to the social structure; the business of getting a living. Since all the inhabitants of England outside the few large towns were essentially countrymen, this is an introduction to life in medieval England as a whole.
The Celys and Their World: An English Merchant Family of the Fifteenth Century From the start of his career as a young woolmerchant, about 1473, George Cely was a hoarder. He kept everything, from important business accounts down to the scrap of paper on which his father had once noted that the brewer and tailor hadn't been paid yet. The result is a rich collection, which not merely documents the Cely family's activities as staplers and ship-owners, but also gives vivid details of their intimate concerns: what they ate and wore, where they lived, how they spent their money - and where they went for loans when the cash ran short - how they amused themselves, and how they coped with trade recessions and political turmoil at home and abroad. This is the first comprehensive study to be based on the material.
Agriculture in Depression 1870-1940 (New Studies in Economic and Social History , No 26) This concise survey of British agriculture between 1870 and 1940 shows how, after a period of comparative prosperity, British farmers faced a period of depression. The prime cause was the increase in world food supplies and the competition from cheaper producers. The author explains how this agricultural depression affected all groups in British farming in different ways. He provides a succinct survey of the recent literature on the subject and outlines the major areas of controversy. A comprehensive bibliography is provided to help the reader pursue the subject in more detail.
The Rise and Decline of the British Motor Industry (New Studies in Economic and Social History, 24) This book is a concise and lucid review of the strengths and weaknesses of the British motor industry during the one hundred years since its foundation. Placing the industry firmly in a European context, the author first assesses its achievements before 1960, and then tests the various explanations that have been offered to explain its decline in the past thirty years. He examines the role of government, of the trade unions, of management and of the multinationals, all of which have been seen as major players in the industry's demise.
The Growth of Big Business in the United States and Western Europe, 1850-1939 (New Studies in Economics and Social History) This book provides the first available introductory, comparative account of the rise of giant business corporations in America and Europe in the century before the Second World War. It discusses the evolution of firms such as Ford, Exxon, Unilever and Siemens, as well as introducing the reader to the major explanations that have been advanced by historians and economists in order to account for these developments in the global economic order.
Emigration from Europe, 1815-1930 (New Studies in Economic and Social History) Why did sixty million people leave Europe for overseas destinations between 1815 and 1930? What were the social and economic causes and effects of this mass migration? Why did some people emigrate and not others, and why did so many emigrants return to Europe? This short, comprehensive survey answers these and other questions regarding emigration from different parts of Europe. Written specifically for undergraduate students, it reviews the current literature in several European languages, summarizes both economic and demographic theories, and analyzes the relation between economic change in Europe and the emigration rate.
Damn Right! Behind the Scenes with Berkshire Hathaway Billionaire Charlie Munger Praise for Damn Right! From the author of the bestselling WARREN BUFFETT SPEAKS. . . "Charlie Munger, whose reputation is deep and wide, based on an extraordinary record of brilliantly successful business strategies, sees things that others don?t. There is a method to his mastery and, through this book, we get a chance to learn about this rare individual." ?MICHAEL EISNER, Chairman and CEO, The Walt Disney Company "Janet Lowe uncovers the iconoclastic genius and subtle charm behind Charlie Munger?s curmudgeonly facade in this richly woven portrait of our era?s heir to Ben Franklin. With a biographer?s detachment, an historian?s thoroughness, and a financial writer?s common sense, Lowe produces a riveting account of the family, personal, and business life of the idiosyncratically complex and endlessly fascinating figure." ?LAWRENCE CUNNINGHAM, Cardozo Law School, Author of The Essays of Warren Buffett: Lessons for...
The Education of a Speculator Acclaim for The Education of a Speculator, a provocative and penetrating look into the mind, the soul, and the strategies of one of the most controversial traders of all time "A compelling and an entertaining read." —The Wall Street Journal "Victor Niederhoffer gives us page after page of distilled investment wisdom. Taken together, this is pure nectar to those who aim for consistently superior stock market performance." —Barron's "The Education of a Speculator offers plenty of insightsinto the way markets work, but the epiphanies are what a reader might expect from Lao-tzu rather than, say, Graham and Dodd." —Worth magazine "The Education of a Speculator is the first meaningful book on speculating. Successful speculating is asfine an art as chess, checkers, fishing, poker, tennis, painting, and music. Niederhoffer brings forth the best from each of these fields and shows the investor how their principles can enrich one's life and net worth." —Martin...