Согласно марксистской экономической доктрине возможность товара быть обмененным на другой товар в определенной пропорции, находящая свое выражение в денежной стоимости, в цене товара. Отличается от потребительной стоимости, характеризующей товар как предмет потребления.
Современный экономический словарь
Неравновесная экономика В монографии последовательно излагаются предпосылки, цели и истоки создания теории неравновесной экономики, описываются методические основы построения неравновесной модели экономики, представляющие собой подробное изложение формирования основных макроэкономических показателей экономики. Показаны методические схемы расчета индивидуальных и средних себестоимостей, цен производства, рыночных цен по отдельным товаропроизводителям с их ранжированием и, далее, стоимости, меновой стоимости, ценности совокупного товара с их теоретическим обоснованием. Сделан фундаментальный прорыв в обосновании источника прибыли в экономике - интеллекта общества - на основе глубокого анализа сущности преобразования энергии и вещества в общественном производстве и воспроизводстве. Серьезное место отведено методологическим аспектам разработанной теории на основе критики методологии анализа экономики в рамках ныне существующих направлений и школ экономической теории, раскрывается теоретическая и...
Money and Power: The History of Business Where there?s greed and ambition you?ll find . . . Money & Power From the pivotal spice trade routes to the streets where merchants sold their wares . . .from the royal court of Spain where a faulty economic plan led to ruin to early American industrial capitals and assembly lines . . . from the fever pitch of Wall Street to the groundbreaking moments in television and motion picture history. CNBC?s acclaimed documentary Money and Power deftly traces the movement of trade, banking, industry, and commerce from East to West, from ancient times to modern. Now this companion book provides an expansive global view of the moguls and dynasties that have defined business in the last millennium. Featuring a Foreword by the documentary?s award-winning creator, David Grubin, Money and Power offers important lessons that are of timeless value?and inspiration for the next generation of groundbreakers and visionaries of business. "You may think a...
Decision Making: Descriptive, Normative, and Prescriptive Interactions The analysis of decision making under uncertainty has again become a major focus of interest. This volume presents contributions from leading specialists in different fields and provides a summary and synthesis of work in this area. It is based on a conference held at the Harvard Business School. The book brings together the different approaches to decision making - normative, descriptive, and prescriptive - which largely correspond to different disciplinary interests. Mathematicians have concentrated onrational procedures for decision making - how people should make decisions. Psychologists have examined how poeple do make decisions, and how far their behaviour is compatible with any rational model. Operations researchers study the application of decision models to actual problems. Throughout, the aim is to present the current state of research and its application and also to show how the different disciplinary approaches can inform one another and thus lay the foundations for the...
The Rise of Financial Capitalism: International Capital Markets in the Age of Reason (Studies in Monetary and Financial History) This work establishes the existence of a sophisticated and smoothly functioning system of financial markets in the mercantile states of northwestern Europe throughout the 1700s. Based on computer analysis of thousands of price quotes from the financial press of the eighteenth century, the results should force both historians and economists to reevaluate their understanding of the evolution of financial markets and their importance for the economic developments of that era.
Theories of Value and Distribution Since Adam Smith; Ideology and Economic Theory Mr Dobb examines the history of economic thought in the light of the modern controversy over capital theory and, more particularly, the appearance of Sraffa's book The Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities, which was a watershed in the critical discussions constituted a crucial turning-point in the history of economics: an estimate not unconnected with his reinterpretation of nineteenth-century economic thought as consisting of two streams or traditions commonly confused under the generic title of 'the classical tradition' against which Jevons so strongly reacted.
Topics in Microeconomics: Industrial Organization, Auctions and Incentives This book in microeconomics focuses on the strategic analysis of markets under imperfect competition, incomplete information, and incentives. Part I of the book covers imperfect competition, from monopoly and regulation to the strategic analysis of oligopolistic markets. Part II explains the analytics of risk, stochastic dominance, and risk aversion, supplemented with a variety of applications from different areas in economics. Part III focuses on markets and incentives under incomplete information, including a comprehensive introduction to the theory of auctions, which plays an important role in modern economics.
Life on the English Manor (Studies in Mediaeval Life & Thought) This book gives a picture of the daily and yearly round of the English peasant in the Middle Ages. H. S. Bennett explains the feudal system which linked the poor man to the soil and to the service of his lord and the church in a pattern of customary duesand rights, payments, labours and small privileges. The author gives lively details of the pattern of medieval country life: the influence of the seasons and the state of contemporary knowledge on the work of the fields; the place of religion in everydaylife; the workings of feudal justice; popular attitudes to the social structure; the business of getting a living. Since all the inhabitants of England outside the few large towns were essentially countrymen, this is an introduction to life in medieval England as a whole.
The Celys and Their World: An English Merchant Family of the Fifteenth Century From the start of his career as a young woolmerchant, about 1473, George Cely was a hoarder. He kept everything, from important business accounts down to the scrap of paper on which his father had once noted that the brewer and tailor hadn't been paid yet. The result is a rich collection, which not merely documents the Cely family's activities as staplers and ship-owners, but also gives vivid details of their intimate concerns: what they ate and wore, where they lived, how they spent their money - and where they went for loans when the cash ran short - how they amused themselves, and how they coped with trade recessions and political turmoil at home and abroad. This is the first comprehensive study to be based on the material.
Agriculture in Depression 1870-1940 (New Studies in Economic and Social History , No 26) This concise survey of British agriculture between 1870 and 1940 shows how, after a period of comparative prosperity, British farmers faced a period of depression. The prime cause was the increase in world food supplies and the competition from cheaper producers. The author explains how this agricultural depression affected all groups in British farming in different ways. He provides a succinct survey of the recent literature on the subject and outlines the major areas of controversy. A comprehensive bibliography is provided to help the reader pursue the subject in more detail.